Have Questions About Homeschooling? Get Your Answers Here

Many people have lost trust in the public education system. The problem is that private school tuition is usually very high, and many families can’t afford it. You can solve this problem with homeschooling. With handling a child’s education from home, you can feel confident that your children are getting the best education without sacrificing hard earned dollars. Reading this article will help you educate yourself.

Understand that children work best when they have breaks now and then. Scheduling these breaks throughout the day will allow your child to stay interested in learning by reducing the monotony of continuous classes. Let them have a little free time to relax. This will benefit everyone.

Remember you are dealing with children, and they do better when they get breaks. You can’t expect them to cram all day without a break. You need to give them a little time to unwind. It’s good for everyone.

Learning can be done all day, every day. Children can learn from everything you do through out the day. The one on one attention that your children will receive being home schooled is invaluable. Let your child help you with different tasks, such as cooking, shopping and home improvement projects. They will enjoy the hands on learning and be proud of what they have help to make.

Current Events

Take field trips with other homeschooling families. This will provide fun and socializing opportunities. You can also save some money by getting group rates at different locations.

Textbooks are not the only way to learn. Kids should be welcome to read anything, from a blog to CNN.com. Interesting discussions can develop as a result of current events, so have your child read timely articles as a way to further their education. Also, you will teach them the importance to stay up-to-date on current events.

Think about where to set-up the homeschool classroom in your house. Try to make the area free of distractions and easy to learn in. Also, you may want to choose a room that has a lot of space for mobility. You should also have the ability to check on them at all times in the area.

When choosing to teach your children at home, it pays to be imaginative. Educational supplies can be extremely expensive, so try making things yourself. You can create flash cards using index cards that you can laminate. Involve your children in the process to promote the learning experience.

Understand the rules for homeschooling in your state. Since laws pertaining to homeschooling can be different in each state, be sure to research what your specific state requires you to abide by. Some states want parents to have standardized testing done, and other states have different rules. There are even some parts of the United States where a parent must register their home as a school.

Use homeschooling workshops before you start teaching your child. You can be easily overwhelmed with all of your teaching responsibilities. Seminars provide you with the guidance you need to get started in homeschooling. Public school teachers need to keep their credentials updated, and attending these events every so often will help you do the same.

Have you thought about the financial issues you might have because of homeschooling? You may need to leave your place of employment, which could be quite problematic. You may be at home during home schooling, but because it takes a lot of time, you may very much need to pay to bring in outside help for things like housework.

Create a budget for your homeschooling efforts. When you plan out expenses for resources and field trips for the year, you can form a good operating budget. Use different accounts so that each child will have their own amount. Make sure there is room for adjustment in your budget in case of unexpected expenses.

Use your own talents to create homeschooling resources. Educational supplies can be extremely expensive, so try making things yourself. You can make your own flash cards. Making learning fun can go a long way in keeping your child’s interest.

Research the idea of homeschooling your children. Fortunately, it is easy to find a lot of information online that can help you make your decision. Always make sure that you have enough energy, time, and finances to ensure that your kids get a quality education.

Give children hands-on lessons to help them learn. Suppose your lesson plan includes foreign language units. Introduce your child to the music, cuisine and imagery associated with that country or region. If learning about Mexico, children could enjoy such favorites as tacos, tostadas and chimichangas. If the lesson is on World War II, cooking a meal that is reflective of all of the countries involved would be a good idea. Children will absorb information more readily when they are use all their senses.

Make a list of the positives and negatives about homeschooling and public school. Refer to this list when you are planning their education. It can serve as a checklist of things to avoid and plan for as you plan your curriculum. Take care of it and refer to it regularly.

Make sure you also do family activities if you are homeschooling. You need to spend family time and separate it from homeschooling. Date nights and quiet time alone will help show them how important they are. Doing things together as a family outside of the homeschooling environment always helps.

Find out more about different learning and teaching styles. You can turn your lesson plans into a targeted study for your child. You can still be flexible if you decide something isn’t working out with a certain method. Use several methods in combination in order to create a unique curriculum.

You have to realize that the GED exam is the ultimate goal when homeschooling your high school age child. Try having them take a practice GED test before each class in their curriculum to view weak areas. This ensures you provide them the help they require.

Classical Music

If you are married and a homeschooler you should both have responsibilities. As an example, they could take the child to any sports activities that they participate in. You are always with your children, so it is imperative that they spend time with their other parent too.

Your child will learn the most when using the method known as unit study. This method allows you to focus on one thing at a time. By focusing on a single topic, you can learn more about it, down to the fine details. For instance, six weeks of classical music. At the end of this lesson, go on a field trip to watch a performance so they can see classical music first hand. This will help your child understand how the things they just learned can be applied in their daily life.

Have your students set up a blog for online use. Writing is an essential component of your child’s development, and participating in an online blog is an excellent method of getting your child to write more. Let your child choose a topic that he finds interesting. Once you and your child have selected an appropriate topic, create the blog, and make sure the privacy settings keep the blog private. This allows them to write research-based expository articles on a variety of topics. They can also write short stories on the topic that others might enjoy.

While homeschooling is important, time for other relationships in your family are important, too. Homeschooling takes up a significant amount of time, which can lead to a lack of free time to spend with your partner. Show them they’re important to you by doing activities like going on dates or to the movies, or spending quiet time together. Spending a little quality time with your significant other everyday can really help to strengthen your relationship and keep peace in the home.

When you homeschool, you do not leave your disciplinary hat at the door. It’s good to make lesson and discipline plans at the start of each school year. You are no longer just a parent. You are a teacher. Think long and hard about whether or not you really want to play both roles.

Make sure that you keep art supplies on hand for your children. This is great for occupying one child while you are teaching another. Encourage your children to be creative and to use the supplies to create something related to the last lesson you went over. This emphasis on creativity is a superior way to learn.

IF you educate your kids in the comfort of your home they can get one on one instruction that they will not get in schools. Even seemingly-mundane activities like cooking and doing yard work can provide learning opportunities. You can teach woodworking, cooking, or simply visit a horticulture center for biology.

Help your child write a blog. Writing is beneficial as it lets your child use their imagination. The initial step is to assist your children in choosing blog subjects they have some interest in, or are passionate about. Set up an account with a blog website and be sure that it will be private. With these tools in hand, your child can learn to write well researched articles. This is a rare and necessary skill. They can also write short stories on the topic that others might enjoy.

Remember, one of the major advantages of homeschooling is that you are not limited by books or curriculum. True, they are important tools, but you are the one to wield them. Adopt a teaching methods that corresponds to our children’s learning style and create some unique lesson plans that include experiments and other activities that will help your children understand the lesson. After all, this is basically what home schooling goes over.

Focus on reading and math. These are the basis behind any advanced subject. A child that is unable to read well or cannot do basic math will not succeed in any other subject. For this reason, it is necessary to focus on these two core subjects.

Keep toddlers busy by giving them plenty to do. Have different activities available that replicate the theme of what you are doing with the older children. This will help to prepare toddlers for such a time when they themselves are home schooled students.

Your older children can help their young siblings. If you’ve got older or advanced kids, let them help the younger kids. It not only helps your younger child, but the older one, too. Children often learn well from others regardless of age differences.

If you can afford it, consider getting outside help with housework, running errands and cooking. Homeschooling requires a lot of time, but chores do as well. You should be the teacher, but others could help you with household chores. By giving up control of these other tasks, you free up your time and mind to devote to teaching.

Your homeschooling curriculum should not limit your teaching. A curriculum is a tool to help you. Look for all sorts of opportunities to teach, and develop your own unique plans. The main advantage of homeschooling is your ability to adapt your methods to your child.

Contact other home school parents to share information. Not only will you find new friends, you will also gain a wealth of information resources. You shouldn’t let other parents control your homeschooling decisions, but it is always a good idea to get a second opinion when making a major change.

Are you and your child struggling with a particularly tricky subject? Try to find a new approach to the material. You might just know one method to teach this subject, but you can do some research for different approaches. There are different learning methods, and not everyone learns things best the same way.

Create healthy boundaries between leisure and school time to ensure that your relationship with your child remains a positive one. When school time is done for the day, your children should have the freedom to do their studying when they see fit. At times, break the tension by incorporating some fun activities into your day, such as a trip to a park or time to see a movie.

Now that you’re more aware of what it takes, you can begin mapping out a plan for homeschooling your children. Keep what you learned here in mind when making future educational decisions. Your love for your child will make you the best teacher he could have. Your children have a great parent in you.

Find out if there’s any local home schoolers. You can get more information and advice by attending these meetings. Collaborating with other homeschooling families may defray the expense of materials, since they can be traded from one family to another.

Demokratische Schule Bremen

Why Homeschooling Should Be An Option That Works

When I grew up, homeschooling wasn’t talked about. Public school was viewed as mandatory and the only choice for parents. In addition to using the Internet for helpful information, you can also use the article that follows.

Find out the homeschooling laws in your area before you start. Many laws and regulations define how homeschooling must be done within the area you live. While there is sometimes a specific curriculum set by the state, some states also require parents to create and submit their own curriculum. Some homeschooling parents find it the easiest to coordinate their schedule with the local schools calendar year.

Don’t just use textbooks. You can teach reading using things like newspapers and comic books. Current events can keep things fresh and exciting for your child. Analyzing current events is also an excellent way to build critical thinking skills, which is a gift that keeps on giving.

If you have young kids you might have a hard time finding the time to homeschool older kids. Set up a schedule for the day so that the needs of all of your children can be met. Find activities that both children can appropriately enjoy. Find ways to get your children engaged in cooperative learning and let them learn to work together.

Learning happens all around us whether in the classroom or at the park. Your child is capable of learning more from you every day than what is in the curriculum. For example if you hear your child make a grammatical error, correct him and explain why the error was made and how to correct it. Enlist their help with making dinner by letting them read directions and measure ingredients. They will learn quickly and make you proud.

Consider the place in your home that will be used as a classroom for homeschooling. The area has to be clean and distraction-free. It should have room for dynamic activities as well as writing desks. This environment needs to be safe and easy to monitor.

If you homeschool your kids, you can use methods that engage their dominant learning styles so that they can learn more easily. Hands-on kids can be given projects which meet their talents. This ensures they learn what they need to.

Try to think of alternatives to purchases school supplies. Many educational resources are quite expensive when purchased, but can be made relatively easily and cheaply at home. For example, it’s easy to make flashcards and reusable graphs by laminating index cards and graphing paper. It can even be a fun way to get your kids involved and helping out.

Things will be easier on you and your child if you go to some homeschooling workshops or conferences before you begin. Being a teacher can be quite overwhelming. Join some classes, workshops or seminars if you need help with teaching methods and strategies. This will help you improve your level of education and will benefit your child.

You can hire help for housework or have your kids help you. You can’t get it all done alone! Don’t try to do everything on your own. Ask for help and appreciate it when you get it.

Tactile, or hands-on learning is one of the most effective and fun ways to learn. For instance, if the lesson is about the culture of a foreign country, cook a meal from that area. When studying Stalin, cook the foods related to this culture such as cabbage rolls. You can cook pasta, sushi and schnitzel when learning about WWII. It is easier for people to take in information if their senses are stimulated.

There is great importance in life skills and academic studies. Therefore, try to teach life skills and academics in your homeschooling education. Everyone is aware of academic skills, but life skills are equally important and include things like meal planning and budget balancing. Sometimes you can combine these two areas. For instance, math skills can be acquired through dealing with shopping and budgeting. Teach your child real-world skills like driving, but incorporate academic lessons along the way, such as the formula for speed.

Ensure that your child is able to study and learn in a spot that has limited distractions. Find a place that is not near a play area. If there’s no storage where you choose to teach, put a box in there where supplies can be kept.

Incorporate technology into your routine, but make sure you use other techniques as well. Technology is not always reliable. Always have a second set of lesson plans as a contingency for those unexpected occurrences.

Know when it is time give in. When a child isn’t learning from one method, change tactics. You need to seek out an alternate method. Movies, online applications, tutors, flashcards, games and more are all effective and fun ways to teach your children. If you push your children to learn in a way that doesn’t fit their learning styles, you are doing more harm than good and causing unnecessary frustration for everyone.

There are different learning styles and methods. Children all learn differently, so it is important to cater to your child’s individual style. Don’t let certain teaching methods overwhelm you. Experiment with different combinations of teaching styles and activities to find a mix that perfectly suits your child.

Consider using unit study as a method for your instruction. It states that you only study a single topic in a certain period of time. This lets you delve more into each subject. One such unit study might be classical music. Take a month or two to study this topic. When that time is up, attend a performance with your child. This provides a more well-rounded approach-one that is likely to remain with your child much longer.

Write down your thoughts about homeschooling. Writing down your reasons for homeschooling can really make things clearer for you and your family. If you know what you want to do and why, you will be ready to answer any objections that people might bring to you. This inevitably makes vocalizing your reasoning an easier process.

Allow your children to craft lesson plans. Let them tell you what they want to do and allow them to use their imaginations. They will enjoy learning more if they have some input into the process. You’re likely to be surprised by the ideas they present.

Remember to take time for family relations, even though you are homeschooling. Spend time with your spouse regularly, instead of being completely absorbed in the homeschool process all the time. Make sure you set aside some time for dates, or just staying home alone. Spending time together each day can make the difference.

Find other homeschooling families, and become involved with them. You can learn much from other families who are sharing your experience. You can also build friendships by sharing your own experiences and advice. Your children may also make friends with children of other parents in your group. This will help your child develop lasting friendships. Homeschooling family groups are great for this as well.

Allow your kids to influence your lessons. Allow them to use their imagination a bit and be open with you about what their interests are. Being able to choose what they want to know more about will lead to more engaging discussions. You might be amazed at the ideas they have!

Feed your children well before school starts. This can give your child the boost they need to get through the lesson. If they aren’t properly nourished, they won’t be able to concentrate of their lessons.

Don’t copy the public school classroom and rely on lectures to try to teach your children. You are not a trained professional. Truthfully, your kids don’t want to hear you lecture them. Consider their point of view. There is a good chance you will do quite a bit of learning as well.

Set up an online blog or journal for your child. Creative writing is important for any child, and keeping a blog online can help with that. Let your kid blog about a topic of interest particular to them. Also, make sure to make the blog private. They will have the ability to write papers using their research, which is a skill that will come in handy down the road. You could also let your children write some short stories or even an opinion column if they are old enough.

Find other families in your local community. Homeschooling your children is not be easy, and you can learn from the situations of others. You not only have the opportunity to share advice with others, but you can develop friendships. Finally, networking allows your child to meet new people and make friends. One of the difficulties in homeschooling is the lack of a classroom or recess for your child to have a chance to make new friends. Everyone will benefit!

Understand how homeschooling is regulated in your state. Homeschooling gives you a lot of freedom but there are still regulations and guidelines you need to follow. Some school districts simply want you to fill out a paper stating you will be homeschooling your children. However, you must usually give your child the same standardized tests that are required in traditional schools. If you know what you need ahead of time you will be able to prepare for it.

The amount of time you spend with your children when you home school them can cause friction. Try to leave home-life outside of your classroom lessons. If things get heated, don’t think twice about taking a break. This will prove beneficial for you as well as your child.

Try going to your local library. Reading is an essential component of each and every curriculum. Getting a child to become interested in reading should come about by reading more than just school books. Take your child to the library at least once a week. Make the trip a fun one for the child. Let them browse the books freely, including books that are appropriate for their age as well as more advanced subjects that can challenge them. Incorporate these books into your daily lessons with your children.

Look up local homeschooling groups. There are more homeschoolers than ever these days. Find more families who offer homeschooling near you, and you might be surprised by what you can find. You might also look online for support or read blogs for advice. You can spend time with these families and find out what they are using, what works for them and even swap materials. This will also help your child socialize and make friends. These support groups can help make your homeschooling a much smoother experience.

Be stern enough with your children about doing homework. Making a habit of falling behind your lesson plan or allowing your child to fall behind with homework is a practice you want to avoid at all costs. Make sure they take school as seriously as they would if someone else was their teacher.

Be realistic about whether or not you are really ready to homeschool your children. It may seem like teaching is easy, but it takes a lot of time, patience and sometimes even money. If you’re not cute out for homeschooling, admit if before it’s too late. Taking the time to evaluate if you’re ready for such a challenge can help boost your confidence and help you teach your children better.

After learning all these great homeschooling tips, you are able to use them at home. Make use of them in your current classroom, or the one you’re planning. It only takes a bit of creativity and some inspiration to make lessons that will teach your child.

Interact with parents who also chose to homeschool their children. This lets you ask questions, make friends, and share tips. There are many styles of homeschooling so don’t feel that you have to do things just like everyone else does.

Demokratische Schule Bremen

Great Tips To Help You Better Understand Homeschooling

You have to be diligent when homeschooling your children. That said, homeschooling can be harder than you think. You simply need help from experts and those who have been there, and the information in this article is just that.

Having both a baby or toddler and an older child can prove very challenging. You need to have time in the day for each child. Look for toys or games that will fit with your child’s age group. Use every moment to have both kids involved without disrupting their bonding or development.

Giving your kids plenty of breaks will help them stay focused and enthusiastic. If they simply must read for hours at a time, learning will become quite stale. Let them go outside or vegetate for a bit. Getting out all that extra energy will actually end up helping them learn.

One great thing about homeschooling is that it is possible to tailor the curriculum to your child’s learning style. If your child learns best with hands on situations, then you should focus your lesson plans in ways that involve as many hands on experiences as possible. Your kids will benefit greatly from this strategy.

Don’t rely solely on textbooks! Your child should learn to read all sorts of things, from comic books to the newspaper. Discussing current events is a great way to help your child get excited about learning. Analyzing current events is also an excellent way to build critical thinking skills, which is a gift that keeps on giving.

Consider where in your home you’ll house your homeschooling classroom. The children should feel comfortable, able to focus without distractions and have plenty of room to move around. If you do not have an area big enough for everything you need to teach, you can always hold lessons in other rooms of the house as well. You should be able to see your children from all areas of the room, also.

Make everyday an educational one. Your child will probably learn more just from experience than from following any type of set curriculum. Be attentive to their use of language and guide them to use grammar properly. Preparing food is the perfect time to explain how temperatures and measurements play into daily life. You will be proud of how much they learn.

Make sure you are aware of the homeschooling laws in your state. Home school laws differ with each states, which is why you need to know what your specific state requires. In some states, you will be required to prepare your children to take some standardized tests. In some states, it is illegal to homeschool children without first registering as a private institution.

One benefit of homeschooling is that it allows you to teach your children in a way that helps them to learn quickly. If you have kids who are practical learners, your curriculum can take advantage of that. These extra touches will contribute greatly to your child’s success.

Remember that even if you aren’t teaching art, you should use art when giving lessons. Incorporate drawing activities centered around other lesson plans, or use clay or fabric to create something textural that focuses on another demonstrating something learned in another subject. They can also act, sing or sculpt. Immersion is the best way to foster a healthy learning atmosphere.

Have you thought about the financial impact you may have to deal with when you homeschool? If homeschooling requires quitting your job, the financial burden can be great. You may be at home during home schooling, but because it takes a lot of time, you may very much need to pay to bring in outside help for things like housework.

Set up a homeschool budget. If you are already aware of any field trips or activities that are planned, you can knock out a solid budget for the year ahead. Devote an account to each child with a specified budget allotment. Don’t forget to include a cushion in case of unexpected costs!

Be crafty when it comes to homeschooling. Tap into resources online and through literature to learn about the job. You can make your own flash cards by using index cards. Involve your children in the process to promote the learning experience.

Family trips and vacations are great tools for learning. Coordinate your family vacations to correspond to what you are teaching your child in school. Even a simple local trip can be accomplished in a day and have many rewards. Your family can enjoy themselves while also learning.

Don’t just dive into homeschooling; prepare you and your child by attending some conferences or workshops. It can be very overwhelming trying to handle all of the different aspects of being a teacher. Classes and seminars are great sources of inspiration and hands-on guidance for many aspects of homeschooling. While you may have been running a homeschool for a while, continuing your education is important to better the education of your children.

Create opportunities which allow your child to socialize with people his or her own age. You may have to be a bit more creative since he is not at school. Take field trips with nearby parents who also homeschool. Have your kid engage in community sports. The Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts are excellent organizations to join.

Reach out to and connect with other homeschoolers like you. There are many reasons why people choose homeschooling these days. There is a good chance you can link up with people whose philosophies and goals mirror yours. Homeschooling groups are also a great place to get advice and support if you’re just beginning.

Do not become the only one you know who is homeschooling. A local network could help parents and homeschooled children. Keep an eye out for support groups and even forums on the Internet of like-minded people. A good group of people you can count on for support will provide you with a solid foundation.

Make sure not to neglect life skills from your program. Make these a regular part of your child’s schooling, as well as the academics. Academic studies can stand alone easy, but applying them to life is what matters. Sometimes you can combine these two areas. For instance, math skills can be acquired through dealing with shopping and budgeting. For instance, as you plant a garden, teach about plant life cycles and how plants are affected by their environment.

It is good to incorporate modern technology into your curriculum, but don’t forget to use other more traditional as well. Internet connections are not always the most reliable, and if you teach only with the computer, you might find that you have to work around the times when your connection is best. Ensure that you backup your lessons in case of technology outages so you won’t lose any time teaching your child.

Select socialization opportunities for your child carefully. You have to think outside of the box. Field trips, organized with other homeschool parents, are a great social activity. Enroll your child in local sports leagues. Becoming a boy scout or girl scout is another way for your child to have chances to socialize while learning valuable skills.

Don’t neglect your family relationships for the sake of homeschooling. Be sure to schedule time with your partner and ensure that your schedule still includes „free time.“ Engage in their hobby or go out to dinner together. This will ensure a strong relationship.

Keep in mind that things will not always be pleasant. Unfortunately, you will need make your children study. Flicking through endless flash cards and reading lengthy academic books is unlikely to be everyone’s idea of a good time. Reward systems can help make all lessons work much better.

Your kids should always have craft supplies at the ready. While one child is engaged in serious learning, the other can be kept occupied with crafts. This keeps them happy and busy. This is a quality learning method.

Make sure you hash out plans on paper. This will make it easier for your spouse to visualize your dream. Know what you want to do, so you are able to answer questions about why you homeschool. This will make answering the questions of others much easier.

When homeschooling kids, things may get tense due to your close bond. Focus on learning when you are in the classroom and leave other issues for later. If things start to get tense, just take a break. This break can help both your child and you to maintain a solid relationship.

Take your kids on nature walks. You can use the walks to teach in various ways. Collecting leaves is an excellent activity for younger children. Challenge your child to identify as many leaves and plant species as possible. The older kids can try to identify the different species they find. If you bring a camera with you, the children will not disturb the natural habitat.

If you’re homeschooling your children, make sure your spouse is taking care of things you might not be able to get to. Your partner can take your kids to clubs and sports events, for example. You’re around your kids all day, so you must spend time with your significant other too.

Make sure that your child has a hearty meal before a learning session. This can give your child energy and help them focus on the lesson. Children’s attention tends to wander if their stomach is growling.

Bear in mind that homeschooling will test and extend the demands upon you as a disciplinarian. At the start of the school year, you must set up a discipline plan alongside your lesson plan. Remember, you are now not only your children’s parent, you are also their teacher. Do not get started with homeschooling if you cannot get your child to listen to you.

Focus on reading and math. These subjects are found in all walks of life and most subject matter. Do not expect your child to perform well in science or history if they cannot read or complete simple problems. Find ways to incorporate reading and math skills into their everyday life and even in play.

Figure out various learning techniques. Each child has their own learning methods. Some of them will need a more hands-on approach than others will. Understand how your child learns in order to modify your lessons to match that style. This is why homeschooling is better than public schools.

Enjoy the experience of homeschooling. Find subjects that you and your children are interested in learning. You have the library in your community at your disposal for materials you can use. Use this information as part of your kid’s curriculum. This makes it a winning situation all around.

All subjects have their own importance, but math and reading are the two that should be most emphasized. Once your child masters these subjects, they will be comfortable with everything else. Children who can’t do math or read well will suffer across the board. Also, spend a longer period of time on these topics.

Always enforce strict guidelines and structure when it comes to homework. It is a bad idea to let things fall by the wayside just because instruction is occurring in the home. Define clear lines between work time and play time.

Encourage your older children to help your younger ones. Older children can be the perfect tutor for younger ones. Your older children will feel sense of accomplishment when they see the younger ones use the information they have taught them. Children often listen well to older siblings.

Now that you have a heads-up on homeschooling, you will have an easier time of it. This will provide you with the information to give you children the great education they deserve. The end result will be a well educated child who is ready for the future and prepared for the successes that lie ahead.

Homeschooling your kids is an excellent way to ensure they have the attention needed to be successful in learning. The things that happen in your everyday life offer many opportunities for lessons and teaching. There are ways to give them lessons while you are cooking or doing home improvements, you can even go on a field trip.

Demokratische Schule Bremen